Authors: Bill Harms
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Locality: Patuxent Research Refuge (39.060200, -76.780700)
Abstract: Established in 1936 by executive order of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Patuxent Research Refuge is the nation's only national wildlife refuge established to support wildlife research. It is located between Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD.
CT=Central Tract
NT=North Tract
ST=South Tract
Nativity to refuge - Native, exotic, and uncertain.

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Families: 144
Genera: 558
Species: 1129 (species rank)
Total Taxa: 1267 (including subsp. and var.)

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Acorus calamus L. - sweetflag
Roadside seepage,
Known from two stations, introduced in at least one of them,
Nativity uncertain, CT NT; F. M. Uhler s.n. [USFWS] , Bill Harms 9327 [USFWS]
Sambucus canadensis L. - common elderberry
Wet to moist areas, hedgerow, infrequent, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5221 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6626 [USFWS]
Viburnum acerifolium L. - mapleleaf viburnum
Bottomland woods, rare, CT, native; N. Hotchkiss 5164 [USFWS] , Dave Anderson s.n. [USFWS]
Viburnum opulus L. - European cranberrybush
Garden, single station, ST, cultivated exotic; Bill Harms 8288 [USFWS]
Hedgerows, open edge habitats, common, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5112 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6318 [USFWS]
Viburnum recognitum Fernald - northern arrow-wood
Edge of woods and open areas, locally common, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5834 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6494 [USFWS]
Alisma subcordatum Raf. - American water plantain
Open wet areas, swamps, infrequent, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5316 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6716 [USFWS]
Open wet areas, swamps, infrequent, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 6015 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6922 [USFWS]
Edge of pond, single station, CT, from Back Bay, VA, planted 11/26/63; exotic to refuge; F. M. Uhler s.n. [USFWS]
Liquidambar styraciflua L. - American Sweet Gum
Open mesic dry woods, with Virginia pine, common, locally abundant, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5704 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6347 [USFWS]
Disturbed areas, rare, CT NT, exotic ruderal; Bill Harms 7448 [USFWS]
Amaranthus hybridus L. - slim amaranth
Disturbed areas, flower bed weed, rare, CT NT, exotic ruderal; N. Hotchkiss 5720 [USFWS]
Amaranthus retroflexus L. - redroot amaranth
Disturbed areas, flower bed weed, infrequent, CT NT ST, exotic ruderal; N. Hotchkiss 7112 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 7427 [USFWS]
Flower bed, one station, persisting for at least 2 years in garden, exotic ruderal; F. M. Uhler s.n. [USFWS]
Chenopodium album L. - lambsquarters
Disturbed areas, Locally common, CT NT ST, exotic ruderal; N. Hotchkiss 5708 [USFWS]
"Waste ground", disturbed area in bottomland woods, rare, CT NT, exotic ruderal; N. Hotchkiss 5508 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 7512 [USFWS]
Flower garden and near gravel piles, rare, CT NT, exotic ruderal; Bill Harms 7428 [USFWS]
Bottomland woods and open swamps, rare, CT NT ST, native; Bill Harms 7354 [USFWS]
Open areas, old fields, common, CT NT ST, exotic; N. Hotchkiss 5262 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6683 [USFWS]
Leucojum aestivum L. - summer snowflake
Near old homesteads and in gardens, infrequent, CT NT ST, planted and persisting, exotic; Bill Harms 6273 [MARY] , F. C. Schmid s.n. [USFWS]
Narcissus poeticus L. - poet's narcissus
Plantings mostly near old homesteads, known from several stations, CT NT, exotic; Bill Harms 8857 [USFWS]
Near old homesteads, common, locally abundant, CT NT ST, planted and persisting, exotic; N. Hotchkiss 7068 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6112 [USFWS]
In the middle of an open field-pasture, one station, CT, planted and persisting, exotic; Bill Harms 9118 [USFWS]
Open areas near old horse stable area, one station, NT, planted and persisting for many years, exotic; Bill Harms 6300 [USFWS]
Open area, one station, NT, planted and persisting, exotic; Bill Harms 7769 [USFWS]
Garden, one station, ST, cultivated exotic; Bill Harms 7906 [USFWS]
Hedgerows, open edge habitats, common, locally abundant, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5369 [USFWS] , N. Hotchkiss 5541 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6788 [USFWS]
Rhus glabra L. - smooth sumac
Hedgerows, open edge habitats, infrequent, CT NT, native; N. Hotchkiss 5540 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 7521 [USFWS]
Rhus typhina L. - staghorn sumac
"Thicket along brook", local, known from one station, CT, native; N. Hotchkiss 5539 [USFWS]
Bottomland woods, open old fields, edge habitats, common, locally abundant, CT NT ST, native; J. W. Brainerd s.n. [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6501 [USFWS]
Woodland seepages, infrequent, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5393 [USFWS]
Bottomland woods, terrace woods, infrequent, locally abundant, CT NT ST, native; R. E. Stewart s.n. [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6345 [USFWS]
Uncertain, local, known from one station, CT, label incomplete, native; N. Hotchkiss 5784 [USFWS]
Bottomland woods, Local, known from one station, NT, native; Bill Harms 6523 [USFWS]
Cicuta maculata L. - spotted water hemlock
Open shrub meadow, near swamp, rare, NT CT, native; A. Owens s.n. [MARY] , N. Hotchkiss 5322 [USFWS] , N. Hotchkiss 5322 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6744 [USFWS]
Cryptotaenia canadensis DC. - Canadian honewort
Open oak-beech mesic woods, infrequent, locally common, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5346 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6629 [USFWS]
Daucus carota L. - Queen Anne's lace
open disturbed areas, old fields, common, CT NT ST, exotic; N. Hotchkiss 5325 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6714 [USFWS]
Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC. - longstyle sweetroot
Woods, near streambank, infrequent, CT NT ST, native; Bill Harms 8279 [USFWS]
Habitat uncertain, collected near Cash Lake, Rare, ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5571 [USFWS] , N. Hotchkiss 5571 [USFWS]
Open oak-beech mesic woods, infrequent, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5309 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6614 [USFWS]
Sium suave Walt. - hemlock waterparsnip
Habitat uncertain, Local, known from one station, Probably CT, native; Elmer G. Worthley s.n. [MARY]
Thaspium barbinode (Michx.) Nutt. - hairyjoint meadowparsnip
Bottomland woods, rare, CT, native; N. Hotchkiss 6110 [USFWS]
Asclepias amplexicaulis Sm. - clasping milkweed
Open field under powerline, local, CT, NT native; N. Hotchkiss 5900 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6593 [USFWS]
Asclepias purpurascens L. - purple milkweed
Open field under cleared power line area, local, known from one station, CT, native; F. C. Schmid s.n. [USFWS]
Asclepias syriaca L. - common milkweed
Open areas, old fields, common, locally abundant, CT NT ST, native; Dakar, Jacob 174 [NCU] , L. M. Palmer 100 [MARY] , J. W. Brainerd s.n. [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6624 [USFWS]
Open mainly dry areas, roadsides, infrequent, locally common, CT NT ST, native; B. K. Shipley 3 [MARY] , N. Hotchkiss 5301 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6632 [USFWS]
Asclepias viridiflora Raf. - green comet milkweed
Wet area near stream, local, known from one station, ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5970 [USFWS]
Vinca minor L. - common periwinkle
Open areas, near hedgerows, near old homesteads, infrequent, locally common, CT NT ST, exotic; N. Hotchkiss s.n. [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6147 [USFWS]
Lawn, local, known from one station, CT, planted ornamental, exotic; Bill Harms 9190 [USFWS]
Open area near house, local, known from one station, CT, apparently planted as ornamental, probably exotic to refuge; J. B. Cope s.n. [USFWS]
Garden, Local, known from one station, ST, planted as ornamental, exotic to refuge; Bill Harms 7905 [USFWS]
Roadside, local, known from one station, CT, nativity to refuge uncertain; F. M. Uhler s.n. [USFWS] , N. Hotchkiss 7209 [USFWS]
Ilex opaca Aiton - American holly
Mesic woods - understory, cleared areas under powerlines, common, locally abundant, CT NT ST, native; Countryman, William D. 1603 [NCU] , N. Hotchkiss 5153 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6213 [USFWS]
Ilex verticillata A.Gray - Winterberry Holly
Bottomland woods, open swamp and seepages, common, locally abundant, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5646 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6533 [USFWS]
Bottomland woods, seepage bogs, rare, NT, CT native - Small Jack-in-the-pulpit; Bill Harms 7788 [USFWS]
Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott - Jack-in-the-pulpit
Bottomland to terrace woods, seepage bogs, common, locally abundant, CT NT ST, native; Chandler S. Robbins 18 [MARY] , N. Hotchkiss 5090 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6302 [USFWS]
Lemna minor L. - common duckweed
Floating on open water, impoundments, ponds, common, locally abundant, CT NT ST, native; F. M. Uhler s.n. [USFWS] , Bill Harms 7121 [USFWS]
Lemna valdiviana Phil. - valdivia duckweed
Open water, local, known from one station, CT, native; F. M. Uhler s.n. [USFWS]
Open area in old river runs, infrequent, locally abundant, CT NT, native; N. Hotchkiss 5111 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6233 [USFWS]
Man-made impoundment, Local, known from one station, ST, nativity uncertain; Bill Harms 9078 [USFWS]
Floating on open water, impoundments, ponds, common, locally abundant, CT NT ST, native; F. M. Uhler s.n. [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6666 [USFWS]
Woodland seepages, stream edges, seepage swamps, infrequent, locally abundant, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5811 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6088 [USFWS]
Floating on open water, impoundments, ponds, common, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 7729 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 7122 [USFWS]
Aralia nudicaulis L. - wild sarsaparilla
Open mesic woods, rare, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5446 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 7335 [USFWS]
Hedgerows, open edge habitats, infrequent, locally abundant, CT NT ST, native; A. Owens s.n. [MARY] , N. Hotchkiss 6730/7030 [USFWS] , N. Hotchkiss 6730/7030 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6896 [USFWS]
Hedera helix L. - English ivy
Open woods, climbing on trees etc, infrequent, locally common, CT NT ST, exotic; William H. Stickel s.n. [USFWS] , Bill Harms 7003 [USFWS]
Bricks and masonry; on main gate, local, CT ST, exotic; Bill Harms 9475 [USFWS]
Stream side, Local, known from one station, CT, to be sought eleswhere, apparently native; N. Hotchkiss 5306 [USFWS]
Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L. f. - floating marshpennywort
In shallow water near edge of pond, known from two stations, CT, nativity to refuge uncertain; Norton 25 [MARY] , F. M. Uhler s.n. [USFWS]
Panax trifolius L. - dwarf ginseng
Bottomland woods, rare, locally common, CT NT, native; N. Hotchkiss 5080 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6234 [USFWS]
Flower bed, local, known from one station, NT, planted and persisting, supporting a population of pipevine swallowtails as host plant, exotic; Bill Harms 6466 [USFWS]
Asarum canadense L. - Canadian wild ginger
Bottomland woods, frequent, locally common, CT, NT, possibily ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5115 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6241 [USFWS]
Asparagus officinalis L. - garden asparagus
Roadside disturbed area, "open slope", rare, CT, NT, exotic; N. Hotchkiss 5740 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6623 [USFWS]
Convallaria majalis L. - European lily of the valley
In cemetery, local, known from one station, NT, native; Bill Harms 6343 [USFWS]
Maianthemum canadense Desf. - Canada mayflower
Bottomland woods, terrace woods, frequent, locally common, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5137 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 7270 [USFWS]
Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link - feathery false lily of the vally
Upland woods, partially cleared forest, rare, CT NT, native; Chandler S. Robbins 30 [MARY] , N. Hotchkiss 5427 [USFWS]
Ornithogalum umbellatum L. - star-of-Bethlehem
Open fallow, in cemetery, rare, locally common, CT NT ST, planted and persisting, exotic; Chandler S. Robbins 25 [MARY] , N. Hotchkiss 5098 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6351 [USFWS]
Bottomland woods on island, local, known from one station, CT, native; N. Hotchkiss 7001 [USFWS]
Yucca filamentosa Wood - Pendulous Yucca
Open meadow, dry areas, rare, locally common, NT, probably exotic to refuge; Bill Harms 6145 [USFWS]
Yucca flaccida Haw. - weak-leaf yucca
Open meadow, dry areas, rare, locally common, NT, probably exotic to refuge; Bill Harms 6114 [USFWS]
Bottomland to mesic woods, edge habitats, common, locally abundant, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5155 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6118 [USFWS]
Achillea borealis Bong. - western yarrow
Open disturbed areas, old fields, frequent, locally common, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5225 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6565 [USFWS]
Partly cleared woods, local, known from one station, probably CT, native; N. Hotchkiss 5597 [USFWS]
Open disturbed areas, old fields, frequent, locally common, CT NT ST, exotic; N. Hotchkiss 5509 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6952 [USFWS]
Ambrosia trifida L. - great ragweed
Roadside, dry disturbed areas, rare, CT NT, exotic ruderal; N. Hotchkiss 5492 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 7508 [USFWS]
Disturbed areas, roadside, infrequent, locally common, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5118 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 8864 [USFWS]
Antennaria neglecta Greene - field pussytoes
Old fields, rare, NT and probably CT, native; N. Hotchkiss 5116 [USFWS] , N. Hotchkiss 5810 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 7952 [USFWS]
Open woods, and margins of woods, Pinus rigida, frequent, CT NT ST, native; N. Hotchkiss 5148 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 8816 [USFWS]
Antennaria plantaginifolia Hook. - plantainleaf pussytoes
Open woods and margin of woods, infrequent, CT NT ST, native; W. R. Greiner s.n. [USFWS] , Bill Harms 7823 [USFWS]
In fallow field, old fields, rare, CT NT ST, exotic; N. Hotchkiss 5895 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 6481 [USFWS]
Anthemis cotula L. - stinking chamomile
Old fields, disturbed areas, rare, CT NT ST, exotic; N. Hotchkiss 5914 [USFWS] , Bill Harms 9563 [USFWS]
Arctium minus Bernh. - lesser burdock
"old barnyard field", Local, known from one station, CT, native; William H. Stickel s.n. [USFWS]
"Partly cleared woods", local, known from one station, CT, native; N. Hotchkiss 5433 [USFWS]
Disturbed areas, Locally Common, Exotic ruderal; Bill Harms 7010 [USFWS]
Roadside margin habitats., infrequent, Native; R. E. Stewart s.n. [USFWS] , Bill Harms 7085 [USFWS]
Carduus nutans L. - nodding plumeless thistle
Open old field, locally common, New Maryland state record; Bill Harms 9557 [USFWS]
Pluchea camphorata (L.) Dc. - camphor pluchea
Open areas in bottomland woods,
Rare, NT, CT native - Camphor Weed; F. M. Uhler s.n. [USFWS] , Bill Harms 7000 [USFWS]
Hedgerow, Small local population, Planted and persisting.; Bill Harms 9128 [USFWS]
Need to have expert verify determination; Bill Harms 9071 [USFWS]
Cerastium semidecandrum L. - five-stamen mouse-ear chickweed
Thuja occidentalis L. - northern white-cedar
Hedgerow, known from several locations, Planted in cemeteries, memorials, etc. Large planted stand on Central Tract; Bill Harms 7155 [USFWS]